The past 27 years has seen a shocking reduction in the amount of coral cover in Australia's Great Barrier Reef — according to a new study, it's down to half the size it was in 1985.
This rather depressing analysis shows a drop of 50.7%, thanks to data gathered from more than 2,000 surveys of 214 reefs. They were even able to break down the cause of this decline into three sections: storm damage (48%), bleaching (10%), and a full 42% can be attributed to the crown of thorns starfish.
In a press release John Gunn, CEO of Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS) said:
"We can't stop the storms, and ocean warming (the primary cause of coral bleaching) is one of the critical impacts of the global climate change. However, we can act to reduce the impact of crown of thorns."
The crown of thorns is an interesting creature. It's widely spread throughout the Pacific, and feeds specifically on the coral polyps. Its numbers have dramatically increased in the last few decades — possibly through the decline of predation — and because of that, it's causing significant damage.
Right now, the coral cover is declining at rate of 3.38% per year — and if all three causes were prevented, it would be growing at 2.85%, but if just the starfish could be contained, the coral cover would increase at 0.89% per year. It's not a lot, and it's not fast, but it would be enough to offset the other damages.
Tomb of Mayan snake lord discovered in Guatamala Read more: http://www.foxnews.com/s
Archaeologists say they've discovered what could be the tomb of one of the greatest Mayan rulers, the seventh-century warrior queen Lady K'abel.
The tomb was revealed during digging at the ancient Maya city of El Perú-Waka' in the rain forest of northern Guatemala. Alongside the body, excavators found a white jar shaped like a conch shell with the head and arm of a woman carved at the opening. The artifact had four hieroglyphs that suggest it belonged to K'abel.
"Nothing is ever proven in archaeology because we're working with circumstantial evidence. But in our case we have a carved stone alabaster jar that is named K'abel's possession," David Freidel, an archaeologist working on the site, explained in a video. Freidel, of Washington University in St. Louis, said the find is "as close to a smoking gun" as you get in archaeology.
Yoda purpurata is a newly discovered species of acorn worm, a species of marine animal that is close to the evolutionary connection between vertebrates and invertebrates. But this particular sea creature is particularly memorable because of its resemblance to Master Yoda.
Photo by David Shale.
Yoda purpurata was discovered during the ECOMAR research program, which seeks out new seafloor-dwelling animal species at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge using a remotely operated submersible. This little guy was found 1.5 miles beneath the surface by researchers from the University of Aberdeen. They also discovered two other species of acorn worms, but they are apparently less noteworthy for their lack of resemblance to Star Wars characters. The findings are described in the September issue of Invertebrate Biology.
Need some soothing sounds to put your Monday blues in perspective? We’ve got you covered. Grab your headphones and check out this hot new MP3 track from NASA, currently the number one hit across the universe:
The Race to Bring Quantum Teleportation to Your World
There is an international quantum teleportation space race heating up. Around the world, countries are investing time and millions of dollars into the technology, which uses satellites to beam bits of quantum information down from the sky and and could profoundly change worldwide communication.
This is not a maybe-sort-of-one-day quantum technology. Quantum teleportation has been proven experimentally many times over and researchers are now eyeing the heavens as their next big leap forward. Most of what remains are the nuts and bolts engineering challenges (and some more money) before it becomes a thing of the present.
Though it may be disappointing to hear, quantum teleportation is not about instantly sending a person or object between two places – this is no “Beam me up, Scotty,” or “Bampf!” Instead, the technique involves the perhaps even freakier task of separating a subatomic particle from its quantum state.
“Once you disembody the state of one of particle, you can then recreate the particle in remote copy,” said physicist and computer scientist Charles Bennett of IBM, who co-authored the first paper on quantum teleportation in 1993.
Is it real? Physicists propose method to determine if the universe is a simulation
(Phys.org)—A common theme of science fiction movies and books is the idea that we're all living in a simulated universe—that nothing is actually real. This is no trivial pursuit: some of the greatest minds in history, from Plato, to Descartes, have pondered the possibility. Though, none were able to offer proof that such an idea is even possible. Now, a team of physicists working at the University of Bonn have come up with a possible means for providing us with the evidence we are looking for; namely, a measurable way to show that our universe is indeed simulated. They have written a paper describing their idea and have uploaded it to the preprint server arXiv.
The team's idea is based on work being done by other scientists who are actively engaged in trying to create simulations of our universe, at least as we understand it. Thus far, such work has shown that to create a simulation of reality, there has to be a three dimensional framework to represent real world objects and processes. With computerized simulations, it's necessary to create a lattice to account for the distances between virtual objects and to simulate the progression of time. The German team suggests such a lattice could be created based on quantum chromodynamics—theories that describe the nuclear forces that bind subatomic particles.
To find evidence that we exist in a simulated world would mean discovering the existence of an underlying lattice construct by finding its end points or edges. In a simulated universe a lattice would, by its nature, impose a limit on the amount of energy that could be represented by energy particles. This means that if our universe is indeed simulated, there ought to be a means of finding that limit. In the observable universe there is a way to measure the energy of quantum particles and to calculate their cutoff point as energy is dispersed due to interactions with microwaves and it could be calculated using current technology. Calculating the cutoff, the researchers suggest, could give credence to the idea that the universe is actually a simulation. Of course, any conclusions resulting from such work would be limited by the possibility that everything we think we understand about quantum chromodynamics, or simulations for that matter, could be flawed.
Observable consequences of the hypothesis that the observed universe is a numerical simulation performed on a cubic space-time lattice or grid are explored. The simulation scenario is first motivated by extrapolating current trends in computational resource requirements for lattice QCD into the future. Using the historical development of lattice gauge theory technology as a guide, we assume that our universe is an early numerical simulation with unimproved Wilson fermion discretization and investigate potentially-observable consequences. Among the observables that are considered are the muon g-2 and the current differences between determinations of alpha, but the most stringent bound on the inverse lattice spacing of the universe, b^(-1) >~ 10^(11) GeV, is derived from the high-energy cut off of the cosmic ray spectrum. The numerical simulation scenario could reveal itself in the distributions of the highest energy cosmic rays exhibiting a degree of rotational symmetry breaking that reflects the structure of the underlying lattice.
The big, weird world of creatures inside you may be even bigger and weirder than anybody thought.
Fungi are the latest addition to human menagerie, joining bacteria and viruses in forming the teeming, biological kingdom-spanning superorganisms of our bodies.
“We were all fascinated with the diversity and sheer mass of microorganisms that live inside our intestines,” said immunobiologist David Underhill of the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center. “So we started asking: What do we know about fungus in the gut?”
In a June 8 Science study, researchers led by Underhill and postdoctoral student Ilian Iliev link gut fungus to colitis, an inflammatory bowel disease.
While the findings may be presently useful to colitis researchers, the implications are sweeping: Scientists might ask the same questions of internal fungi as they do internal bacteria, the importance of which is now a buzzing research frontier.
In the last decade, researchers have linked resident communities of bacteria — which outnumber human cells in a body by 10 to 1 — to diseases and fundamental processes, from diabetes and heart disease to metabolism and immune system function. Even viruses are in on the act.
Appreciation of this so-called microbiome represents a sea change in awareness of bacteria: No longer are they external entities that sometimes cause disease, but rather an essential, positive component of human health.
Whether fungi also play a part is a question relatively few researchers have asked. A handful of studies have suggested a limited role, primarily in skin and mouth conditions.
Dutch researchers have invented a biological concrete that can seal its own cracks, preventing water ingress and corrosion of reinforcement.
The technique uses a special strain of mineral-eating bacterium that can tolerate high alkaline environments such as those found in concrete. Millions of dormant bacteria are incorporated in the aggregate during concrete production along with packets of chemical “feed”.
If the concrete is cracked and oxygen and water are introduced, the bacteria become activated. The bacteria then convert the feed into calcite, which seals the crack. Once plugged the bacteria return to their dormant state.
Delft University of Technology in Holland has successfully trialled the concrete and is working to make it commercially viable. The bacteria and feed currently costs €80 (£78) per cubic metre, roughly doubling the price of per cubic metre of concrete.
The work has been led by research scientist Henk Jonkers. He said the cost of the bacteria is small in terms of overall construction costs, but is still keen to make it more competitive.
He is working with industry partners to cut the cost of the bacteria and feed mix to £17/m3. If costs can be brought down, Jonkers believes the technique will first be used in tunnel lining segments.
“It’s difficult to persuade industry to invest in the upfront cost,” said Jonkers. “We hope to have something suitable on the market within two years for the tunnel sealant and are developing ways to reduce the cost to about £17/m3,” he added.
Jonkers and his team has spent four years perfecting the technique. “It took me over a year to come up with the right combination that would not adversely affect the concrete properties, then another three years of testing,” he said.
“The new concrete would be perfect for structures which are difficult to maintain, like underground buildings, motorways or oil rigs,” said Jonkers.
“It is extremely durable. The bacteria are specially adapted to extremely alkaline environments, and can survive dormant inside the concrete for up to 50 years.”
Astronomers have spotted another candidate for a potentially habitable planet - and it is not too far away.
The star HD 40307 was known to host three planets, all of them too near to support liquid water.
But research to appear in Astronomy and Astrophysics has found three more - among them a "super-Earth" seven times our planet's mass, in the habitable zone where liquid water can exist.
Many more observations will be needed to confirm any other similarities.
But the find joins an ever-larger catalogue of more than 800 known exoplanets, and it seems only a matter of time before astronomers spot an "Earth 2.0" - a rocky planet with an atmosphere circling a Sun-like star in the habitable zone.
HD 40307, which lies 42 light-years away, is not particularly Sun-like - it is a smaller, cooler version of our star emitting orange light.
But it is subtle variations in this light that permitted researchers working with the Rocky Planets Around Cool Stars (Ropacs) network to find three more planets around it.
What is Red Shift?
-The term "redshift" arises from the fact that light from more distant objects shows up on Earth more red than when it left its source
-The colour shift comes about because of the Doppler effect, which acts to "stretch" or "compress" waves from moving objects
It is at work in the sound of a moving siren: an approaching siren sounds higher-pitched and a receding one sounds lower-pitched
-In the case of light, approaching objects appear more blue and receding objects appear more red
-The expansion of the Universe is accelerating, so in general, more distant objects are moving away from us (and each other, and everything else) more quickly than nearer ones
-Exoplanet hunters use the same red- and blueshift of stars' light as evidence of planets tugging on them
The team used the Harps instrument at the European Southern Observatory's La Silla facility in Chile.
Harps does not spot planets directly - it detects the slight changes in colour of a stars' light caused by planets' gentle gravitational tugs - the "redshift" and "blueshift" that small motions cause.
Most recently, the instrument was used to spot an exoplanet circling our second-nearest stellar neighbour, Alpha Centauri B.
It is by its nature a high-precision measurement, and it has only been with the team's improved analysis of the natural variations in HD 40307's light that the team could unpick just how many tugs were changing it.
"We pioneered new data analysis techniques including the use of the wavelength as a filter to reduce the influence of activity on the signal from this star," said University of Hertfordshire researcher and lead author of the paper Mikko Tuomi.
"This significantly increased our sensitivity and enabled us to reveal three new super-Earth planets around the star known as HD 40307, making it into a six-planet system."
The outermost of the three new finds, HD 40307g, orbits the star in about 200 Earth-days and has a mass at least seven times that of Earth, joining a growing class of exoplanets called super-Earths.
The team say that the next step is to used space-based telescopes to get a more direct look at the planet and assess its composition.
Skylon Spaceplane Engine Endorsed By European Space Agency
The 'biggest breakthrough since the jet' could reach anywhere in the world in just four hours or power a spaceplane into orbit with no need for rocket stages.
The Skylon, a concept spaceplane that (theoretically) could go from a standing start to orbit and back without disposing of any rocket stages, took another big step forward today as tests independently audited by the European Space Agency confirmed that the Sabre engine underpinning it is conceptually sound. It’s the second key endorsement from the ESA that Skylon and the Sabre engine have picked up in the past two years--giving Sabre-maker Reaction Engines cause to call its technology the biggest engine breakthrough since the jet.
That’s big talk for a small aerospace firm, but then Skylon is a really big idea. The Sabre engine, if successful, should be able to double the normal top speed of conventional jet engines from 2.5 times the speed of sound to 5 times the speed of sound, and it should be able to do so using atmospheric air (rather than tanked oxygen, like a rocket). At that speed Skylon could climb to more than 15 miles up. Once up there amid the much thinner air, its hybrid propulsion system would switch to rocket mode to climb the rest of the way into space.
Largest Quasar Ever Discovered Burns 100 Times Brighter Than Entire Milky Way
Astronomers have found a galaxy whose super-luminous nucleus--called a quasar--is burning 100 times as much energy as the entire Milky Way galaxy.
Though theory has long predicted that quasars this powerful should exist, the newly-discovered object, known as SDSS J1106+1939, is by far the most energetic ever observed. The quasar is powered by a supermassive black hole that lies at its center.
Scientists made the discovery using the X-shooter spectrograph instrument attached to ESO's Very Large Telescope. The spectrograph split light coming from the quasar into its component wavelengths, allowing astronomers to observe the movement of material close to the quasar. The team calculated that the quasar is spewing an annual 400 suns worth of gas and dust, at a velocity of nearly 5000 miles per second.
Giant outflows like this one may be able to answer some big cosmic mysteries, like how the black hole at the center of each galaxy affects its size, and why there are so few big galaxies in the Universe.