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Old 11-01-2013, 07:02 PM   #271
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Default Re: BTE.SE Biggest Thread Ever Science Edition

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Old 11-01-2013, 07:06 PM   #272
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Default Re: BTE.SE Biggest Thread Ever Science Edition

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Originally Posted by gigantes
isn’t the word "boffin" over there in eire?
I had to look up what that meant, so that's a no I guess.
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Old 11-10-2013, 07:08 PM   #273
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Default Re: BTE.SE Biggest Thread Ever Science Edition

3D printed liver survives for 40 days
A San Diego start-up company called Organovo has managed to use 3D printing to generate a liver that lasts for 40 days.

The company is lighting the way for 3D printed organs and edible meat of the future after developing a slice of functioning liver by printing layers of liver cells.

As the liver is an organ that naturally regenerates itself, it makes it perfect for this project and Organovo's lastest printed liver was fully functioning for 40 days, which was a 700 per cent increase on the company's previous effort last April that lasted five days.

The 3D printed liver filters out toxins and drugs to keep in nutrients, but the company has yet to master the ability to integrate blood vessels using 3D printing, hence why this example dies after 40 days as these are what keeps a normal liver alive and healthy.

Organovo's 3D printed liver can be made using a patients own stem cells, meaning it wouldn't get rejected upon implant.

The company is hoping to deliver slices of liver in the 3D Human Liver Project next year, which aims to offer a means of testing drugs on human tissue without risking harming humans.
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Old 11-22-2013, 07:16 AM   #274
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Default Re: BTE.SE Biggest Thread Ever Science Edition




just last spring, a massive star exploded in a galaxy 3.7 billion years away, collapsed in to a black hole, and produced the biggest cosmic explosion ever witnessed. this was briefly visible in the constellation of leo.

this event created an enormous gamma wave burst, which whizzed harmlessly past earth.

if we had indeed been in its path, our atmosphere would have been blown off and the planet would have been turned in to a cinder. no technology or force on earth could have saved us, even if we had had advanced notice.

http://news.yahoo.com/monster-cosmic...191349814.html
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Old 03-05-2014, 03:53 PM   #275
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Default Revolutionary membrane can keep your heart beating perfectly forever



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You're looking at a rabbit's heart beating outside the animal that once hosted it. It's alive, pumping blood on its own thanks to a revolutionary electronic membrane that may save your life by keeping your heart beating at a perfect rate.

The thin, circuit-lined stretchable membrane has been developed by scientists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Washington University in St. Louis and may arrive to human hearts in 10 to 15 years.

They custom made it to precisely fit the shape of the rabbit's heart: First, while the rabbit was still alive, they scanned it and created a 3D model using computer aided tomography. They manufactured the model in a 3D printer, which they used as a mold to create the membrane. After that they took the heart out, applied the membrane, and kept it beating at a perfect pace.

Forever ♥
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Old 03-05-2014, 04:27 PM   #276
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Default Re: Revolutionary membrane can keep your heart beating perfectly forever

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Originally Posted by Anti Hero
Creepy.
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Old 03-05-2014, 04:38 PM   #277
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Default Re: Revolutionary membrane can keep your heart beating perfectly forever

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Originally Posted by Anti Hero

Has mankind finally achieved immortality?
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Old 03-05-2014, 09:10 PM   #278
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Default Re: Revolutionary membrane can keep your heart beating perfectly forever

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Has mankind finally achieved immortality?
Getting closer..
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Old 03-06-2014, 02:02 AM   #279
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Default Re: Revolutionary membrane can keep your heart beating perfectly forever

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Getting closer..
assuming that immortality means extinction, then yes.
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Old 03-17-2014, 12:01 PM   #280
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Default Re: Revolutionary membrane can keep your heart beating perfectly forever

http://www.businessinsider.com/harva...scovery-2014-3

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Scientists have found the first direct evidence that the universe expanded incredibly quickly in the microseconds after the Big Bang.

They found these signatures of cosmic inflation as gravitational waves from the Big Bang from the cosmic microwave background radiation of our universe. These gravitational waves rippled through our infant universe during an explosive period of growth called inflation when the universe expanded by 100 trillion trillion times, in less than the blink of an eye.

That inflation happened about 13.82 billion years ago , as the universe expanded from nothingness to the vastness of space as we see it today:

The major announcement came from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Here's the technical data and papers that go along with the announcement from the group at the Bicep (Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization) project.

"This work offers new insights into some of our most basic questions: Why do we exist? How did the universe begin?," astrophysicist Avi Loeb, who wasn't a member of the study team said in a statement about the Harvard-Smithsonian research. "These results are not only a smoking gun for inflation, they also tell us when inflation took place and how powerful the process was."

Here's the kind of data they are working with, this image of the cosmic microwave background radiation from the Plank telescope. The information derived from this gravity wave data will give us an idea of what the universe was like when it just came into existence:

Gravitational waves were the last untested prediction of Albert Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity. The BICEP researchers were analyzing data from the early universe to find the signals of these waves. According to cosmologists on twitter, the result was significant.

"It's been called the Holy Grail of cosmology," Hiranya Peiris, a cosmologist from University College London, told The Guardian. "It would be a real major, major, major discovery."

Nature News notes this discovery is likely to get a Nobel Prize:


"This is a totally new, independent piece of cosmological evidence that the inflationary picture fits together," says theoretical physicist Alan Guth of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, who proposed the idea of inflation in 1980. He adds that the study is "definitely" worthy of a Nobel prize.

The researchers used a specialized telescope called Bicep (Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization) at the south pole to gather their data.

Here's a great post for more details on cosmic inflation, from Sean Carroll at the Preposterous Universe.

There are still reasons not to get ahead of ourselves. This new data will need to be scrutinized by other scientists and confirmed by other experiments.



kewl beans!
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Old 05-03-2014, 06:57 PM   #281
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Default Lotus-Shaped Rainforest Guardian Skyscraper Harvests Rain To Fight Fires In Amazon





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In these times of global weirding, natural disasters can strike without rhyme or reason. Tornadoes, earthquakes, and forest fires appear more frequently and with more fury, even in areas as wild as the Amazon. To help protect this vital rainforest ecosystem from the destructive threat of fire, Chinese designers Jie Huang, Jin Wei, Qiaowan Tang, Yiwei Yu, and Zhe Hao conceived of a massive watertower skyscraper such as the world has never seen to stand watch over the Amazon. Called the “Rainforest Guardian,” this massive structure would serve as a water tower, a forest fire station, a weather station, and a scientific research center all rolled into one.

The general shape of the Rainforest Guardian Skyscraper is inspired by the lotus flower, a plant well known for its ability to survive for many decades in a watery environment. Like the lotus flower, the Rainforest Guardian would feature a spherical flat platform at its highest point, connected to the ground by a series of external arteries or “roots.”

Link

Bump... for you Brizzly.
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Old 05-20-2014, 12:43 AM   #282
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Default Re: BTE.SE Biggest Thread Ever Science Edition

Scientists say they will create matter from light within a year

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Oliver Pike, the lead researcher on the study, said the process was one of the most elegant demonstrations of Einstein's famous relationship that shows matter and energy are interchangeable currencies. "The Breit-Wheeler process is the simplest way matter can be made from light and one of the purest demonstrations of E=mc2," he said.

Writing in the journal Nature Photonics, the scientists describe how they could turn light into matter through a number of separate steps. The first step fires electrons at a slab of gold to produce a beam of high-energy photons. Next, they fire a high-energy laser into a tiny gold capsule called a hohlraum, from the German for "empty room". This produces light as bright as that emitted from stars. In the final stage, they send the first beam of photons into the hohlraum where the two streams of photons collide.

The scientists' calculations show that the setup squeezes enough particles of light with high enough energies into a small enough volume to create around 100,000 electron-positron pairs.
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Old 05-30-2014, 04:15 PM   #283
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Default Re: BTE.SE Biggest Thread Ever Science Edition

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Synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are an indispensable tool to investigate gene function in eukaryotic cells1, 2 and may be used for therapeutic purposes to knock down genes implicated in disease3. Thus far, most synthetic siRNAs have been produced by chemical synthesis. Here we present a method to produce highly potent siRNAs in Escherichia coli. This method relies on ectopic expression of p19, an siRNA-binding protein found in a plant RNA virus4, 5. When expressed in E. coli, p19 stabilizes an ~21-nt siRNA-like species produced by bacterial RNase III. When mammalian cells are transfected by them, siRNAs that were generated in bacteria expressing p19 and a hairpin RNA encoding 200 or more nucleotides of a target gene reproducibly knock down target gene expression by ~90% without immunogenicity or off-target effects. Because bacterially produced siRNAs contain multiple sequences against a target gene, they may be especially useful for suppressing polymorphic cellular or viral genes.
http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v3.../nbt.2537.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RNA_interference for background information
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18769115
"Knockdown of RCK/p54 expression by RNAi inhibits proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo."

The researchers above invented a method in which to produce si-RNA's from bacteria. Why is this a major development?
1) siRNA's produced from bacteria(pro-siRNAs) are produced by molecular machinery(RNase III) and produce siRNA's from all reading frames, as well as sense and antisense strands. What does this mean? This creates siRNA mixtures that have have greater mRNA targets that can silence target genes more effectively. In essence, pro-siRNA's are more effective than their synthetically produced counterparts.
2)This method is cheaper and more efficient than synthetic production of siRNA. Methods can be easily modified for large scale production and distribution.
3) This will probably be the future of medicine and is a promising area of research that have far reaching applications in all biological industries.

Last edited by shlver : 05-30-2014 at 04:28 PM.
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Old 08-17-2014, 02:21 PM   #284
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Default Re: BTE.SE Biggest Thread Ever Science Edition

This is surprising for some reason


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2...?dopt=Abstract
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Old 10-23-2014, 01:43 AM   #285
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Default Re: BTE.SE Biggest Thread Ever Science Edition

Man’s Genome From 45,000 Years Ago Is Reconstructed



Scientists have reconstructed the genome of a man who lived 45,000 years ago, by far the oldest genetic record ever obtained from modern humans. The research, published on Wednesday in the journal Nature, provided new clues to the expansion of modern humans from Africa about 60,000 years ago, when they moved into Europe and Asia.

And the genome, extracted from a fossil thighbone found in Siberia, added strong support to a provocative hypothesis: Early humans interbred with Neanderthals.

“It’s irreplaceable evidence of what once existed that we can’t reconstruct from what people are now,” said John Hawks, a paleoanthropologist at the University of Wisconsin who was not involved in the study. “It speaks to us with information about a time that’s lost to us.”

The discoveries were made by a team of scientists led by Svante Paabo, a geneticist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany. Over the past three decades, Dr. Paabo and his colleagues have developed tools for plucking out fragments of DNA from fossils and reading their sequences.

Early on, the scientists were able only to retrieve tiny snippets of ancient genes. But gradually, they have invented better methods for joining the overlapping fragments together, assembling larger pieces of ancient genomes that have helped shed light on the evolution of humans and their relatives.

In December, they published the entirety of a Neanderthal genome extracted from a single toe bone. Comparing Neanderthal to human genomes, Dr. Paabo and his colleagues found that we share a common ancestor, which they estimated lived about 600,000 years ago.

Recently, Dr. Paabo and his colleagues got an opportunity to test their new methods on an exceptional human bone.

In 2008, a fossil collector named Nikolai V. Peristov was traveling along the Irtysh River in Siberia, searching for mammoth tusks in the muddy banks. Near a settlement called Ust’-Ishim, he noticed a thighbone in the water. Mr. Peristov fished it out and brought it to scientists at the Russian Academy of Sciences.

The Russian researchers identified the bone as a modern human, not a Neanderthal. To determine its age, they sent samples to the University of Oxford. Scientists there measured the breakdown of radioactive carbon and determined the bone was about 45,000 years old — making it the oldest modern human fossil ever found outside of Africa and the Near East.

In 2012, Dr. Paabo and his colleagues took samples from the bone to search for DNA. To their surprise, it held a number of genetic fragments.

“This is an amazing and shocking and unique sample,” said David Reich, a geneticist at Harvard Medical School and co-author of the new study.

The researchers used the DNA fragments to create a high-resolution copy of the man’s complete genome. A Y chromosome revealed that the thighbone belonged to a man.

The scientists then compared the genome of the so-called Ust’-Ishim man to those of ancient and living people.

Continue reading the main storyContinue reading the main story
They found that his DNA was more like that of non-Africans than that of Africans. But the Ust’-Ishim man was no more closely related to ancient Europeans than he was to East Asians.

He was part of an earlier lineage, the scientists concluded — a group that eventually gave rise to all non-African humans.

Homo sapiens, our own species, appeared in Africa around 200,000 years ago. Previous studies, both on genes and on fossils, have suggested that they then expanded through the Near East to the rest of the Old World.

The Ust’-Ishim man’s genome suggests he belonged to a group of people who lived after the African exodus, but before the split between Europeans and Asians.

Dr. Paabo and his colleagues also found that the Ust’-Ishim man had pieces of Neanderthal DNA in his genome, just as living non-Africans do. But his Neanderthal DNA had some important differences.

Fossils indicate that Neanderthals spread across Europe and Asia before becoming extinct an estimated 40,000 years ago. Today, the Neanderthal DNA in each living non-African human is broken up into short segments sprinkled throughout the genome.

Dr. Paabo and his colleagues have hypothesized that this arrangement is a result of how cells divide.

During the development of eggs and sperm, each pair of chromosomes swaps pieces of their DNA. Over the generations, long stretches of DNA get broken into smaller ones, like a deck of cards repeatedly shuffled.

Over thousands of generations, the Neanderthal DNA became more fragmented. Dr. Paabo and his colleagues predicted, however, that Neanderthal DNA in the Ust’-Ishim man’s genome would form longer stretches.

And that’s exactly what they found. “It was very satisfying to see that,” Dr. Paabo said.

By comparing the Ust’-Ishim man’s long stretches of Neanderthal DNA with shorter stretches in living humans, Dr. Paabo and his colleagues estimated the rate at which they had fragmented. They used that information to determine how long ago Neanderthals and humans interbred.

Previous studies, based only on living humans, had yielded an estimate of 37,000 to 86,000 years. Dr. Paabo and his colleagues have now narrowed down that estimate drastically: Humans and Neanderthals interbred 50,000 to 60,000 years ago, according to the new data.

The findings raised questions about research suggesting that humans in India and the Near East dated back as far as 100,000 years ago. Some scientists believe that humans expanded out of Africa in a series of waves.

But Christopher Stringer, a paleoanthropologist at the Natural History Museum, said that the new study offered compelling evidence that living non-Africans descended from a group of people who moved out of Africa about 60,000 years ago.

Any humans that expanded out of Africa before then probably died out, Mr. Stringer said.

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/23/sc...773522000&_r=0
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